Temple of all religions
It unites 16 elements of different religions, both modern-for example, Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, etc., and disappeared - for example, the ancient Assyrian religion.
To deny yourself the pleasure to appreciate the art of so many religions is simply impossible, so all tourists of Kazan tend to include a visit to the sights in their cultural program and enjoy its majestic beauty.
Creator of extraordinary buildings - an architect, artist and esoteric Mankiewicz Ildar Khans. The history of the monument began in 1994, when a white-bearded old man appeared to him during meditation and told him to take a shovel and start digging in his yard of his home in the village of Old Arakchino. In the process of digging and the idea of creating structures. Villagers and strangers began to help: someone offered the services of a Mason, someone bought and brought construction materials. During the life of Khanov, the construction of the facility did not stop for a single day. Unfortunately, in 2013, a serious illness claimed the life of the founder, but his work is happily continued by his followers.
According to Khanov, the new building was to include elements of all major religions. The architect and the esoteric sought to demonstrate to all people that God is one and there is no point in long disputes over the division of religious views. In his work of construction so successfully intertwined many religions, creating a common spiritual picture that is already difficult to distinguish the individual elements.
According to the architect, the temple was planned to build 16 domes and halls dedicated to different religions, including the disappeared:
Indian Vedic religion;
the Mayan religion;
Rosicrucians and Freemasons;
Orthodoxy and Catholicism;
So far, only the Egyptian and Catholic halls, the Tea room, the Hall of Jesus Christ, the Theater hall and the art gallery have been created in the Temple. Any tourist wants to get to the Kazan temple of religions in order to enjoy the greatness of the architectural ideas of the author and to appreciate the idea of equality of all people and religions. It attracts attention from afar with its rainbow design and exquisite mosaic elements, so the area around is always filled with curious travelers.
It was also planned to create a theater, an ecological school, a children's art school, a children's Conservatory, a memorial to the fallen, a rehabilitation center for drug addicts in the religious complex.
Svyatoslav Roerich, son of the great artist Nicholas Roerich, took part in the design of the building.
The monument is unique in its kind, although the idea of uniting religions is not new and in many cities of the world there are museums of religions. However, in any such Museum religions are still separated from each other, and the religious complex in the village of Old Arakchino demonstrates their harmonious coexistence.
Address, how to get there
The universal temple is located in the village of Old Arakchino, Old-Arakchinsky street, building 4 9.5 km from Kazan. You can get there by public transport (buses № 2 and №45 and commuter train), and by private transport.
Russia has its own leaning tower and it is located in the capital of Tatarstan. It - watch tower Syuyumbike. The spire of the structure deviates from the vertical by 1.98 meters. Historians still argue about the period of construction, agreeing that it was built between 1645-1650 years. The tower is located in the Northern part of the territory of the Kazan Kremlin. The total height of the building is 58 meters.
The tower is a unique symbiosis of Tatar and Russian architecture of XIV-XVII centuries. The design resembles the Borovitskaya and Spasskaya towers of the Moscow Kremlin, but with Eastern elements. They are manifested in the spire, through the gate, semi-oval Windows and elegant half-columns on the front side. Similar architecture capital guests of Tatarstan can see in Moscow at the Kazan station, which architect Shchusev built in strict accordance with the falling tower.
The Foundation of the tower were oak piles, which over the centuries fell to a depth of over 2 meters. The walls are built of brick on lime mortar, and the faces are decorated with brick rollers. The structure has 7 tiers, the first 3 of which are square, and the remaining octagons.
In different height "stills" the first tier is arranged ambulatories, characteristic of Russian architecture. "Orbit" promenade used for inspection of the adjacent territory.
The following 2 tiers - "eight" - is built for a reason: first, when such clutch is of identical quantities of materials the building is constructed to a height of 20% more, secondly, it is less affected by winds, which are always present on top.
Next, a cone-shaped tier is erected, on which a patrol tower is located.
Crowned with all this complex structure green spire, which flaunts the Muslim Crescent.
If the architecture is clear, the history of construction raises many questions among scientists. This is due to the fact that during the capture of the city Chronicles of the Kazan khanate were irretrievably lost, and later documents burned in 1701 during the fire of Moscow. It is established only that during the reign of Peter I the tower was already on the plan of the city in 1717. Thus, the upper limit of the age of the structure is established. There are several theories regarding construction time:
Until 1552 during the khanate on the site of the structure was another watch tower, which was completed and somewhat changed.
Between 1645-1650 - based on archaeological research of soil layers.
Between 1694-1718 years. according to analysis of cartographic data and characteristic elements of Moscow Baroque.
Thanks to the scientist-traveler Adam Olearius can also delineate the lower boundary of the proposed date of construction in 1638. That year he visited Kazan and made sketches of the capital, where no similar buildings were found.
Construction history is full of mysteries: officially unknown who, when and on whose orders built the structure, but more secrets hides the name.Queen Syuyumbike
In the entire history of the khanate of Kazan the head of state once there was a woman - the Queen-Regent Souk, forced to rule for her young son after her husband's death. Dynasty Queen, like her biography, was decent - so it preparadigm was the founder of the Nogai Horde of Edigei, the father of Nogai Biy Yusuf. Suyuk married three times, and all her husbands were rulers of the Kazan khanate.
The reign Suuk remember people cancel certain taxes for traders, peasants and artisans. In gratitude for the relief of the tax burden, she was nicknamed "beloved mistress", translated from Tatar - Syuyumbike. And her name was called not only the patrol structure of the Kremlin, but also many streets in various cities and villages. However, such a story is not so poetic, the legend is more interesting.Legends of the tower
Many legends and stories are connected with the building:
History the first. Tsar Ivan IV the terrible heard about the beauty of the Kazan Regent and decided to marry her. The Queen was against and then the king threatened to raze the khanate to the ground, and kill all the inhabitants. Syuyumbike agreed for the sake of her people, but on the wedding night she threw herself down from the new building and died.
History the second. The tower was built after the capture of Kazan in 1552 by decree of Ivan the terrible, but at the request of the Tatar Queen. Its construction took seven days, one tier for each, and after the completion of the construction, the Queen of the captured khanate threw herself down from it.
History the third. The building was built on the orders of Souk in memory of her second deceased husband Safa-Girey.
The truth, however, was much sadder. After the capture of Kazan by Ivan IV the Terrible, the murzas were bought off by the Treasury, the Princess and her son, who were transported to the Russian Empire and baptized. Wife of the Russian Tsar Souk did not. However, because it does not reduce the beauty and mystery of the falling structure. No less interest among architects and scientists is the cause of the slope of the structure. On the basis of the conducted researches suggest that the structure began to lean to the East side because of an elementary error during construction almost immediately after its end.
Found tilt and undertaken only in 1930. Hard frame, elements of which can be seen on the first tier, stopped the fall and helped to preserve the cultural heritage of the Russian Federation in its original form, so you can personally admire its splendor.
Since ancient times, people built settlements protected from the enemy by reliable walls. This is the heart of the capital of Tatarstan - Kazan Kremlin. Here began the history of Kazan, the chronicle of the two great Nations. So different, they still managed to create a single cultural space. Inside the fortress preserved to the present day monuments, reminding tourists that Muslims and Orthodox are able to establish a joint peaceful life, which remains unshakable for more than four centuries.Kazan is an ancient city standing on seven hills. It combines the cultures of the East and the West. Archaeological research suggests that the capital of modern Tatarstan began to form in the distant X century. Originally, the Kremlin hill and its surroundings were inhabited by ancient Bulgars. The walls of the structure were built to strengthen the commercial settlement. Scientists still disagree about the Dating of the construction of the citadel. Some believe that the process began in the XII century, others are of the opinion that the architects erected the walls in the XV-XVI centuries by order of the Russian Tsar.
Between XIII and XV centuries, the city was captured and ravaged by the troops of the Golden Horde. Many indigenous people left their native land and subsequently erected a new capital — ISKE-Kazan. In the XIV century, by order of the Bulgarian ruler Hassan, the construction of the fortress began in the place where the Museum-reserve is now located. It served as a princely residence until the XV century. As soon as the Ordyn yoke ended, the Kazan khanate was founded, the heart of which was a stone fortress - the Kremlin. The new state existed almost until the end of the XVI century.
In 1552 Kazan was captured by the Russian Tsar. After the battle, he, like all the buildings of the city, was seriously damaged. By order of the king architects from Pskov Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Barma began to restore the city and the construction of a new fortress. Most of the buildings were made of oak and only by the end of the XVII century wooden walls were replaced by stone. Pskov architects built not only fortifications of the citadel, but also Orthodox churches, temples, cathedrals. In 1672, the Kremlin was badly damaged by fire. After that, it was decided to restore the damaged areas of the structure with the help of brickwork.
In the XVIII century, the Russian government founded the Kazan province. At that time, the Governor's Palace (now the residence of the President of the RT) and the Cadet school were erected. But peacetime did not last long. Already in 1774, the Kazan Kremlin once again served as a defensive frontier, protecting the Tsar's troops from cannon fire launched by the rebels of Emelyan Pugachev. This time the rebel chieftain failed to enter the fortress, but he still visited the city, though later, and already as a prisoner waiting to be sent to execution in one of the towers.
The modern architectural complex of the Kremlin was formed by the end of the XIX century. After the revolution of 1917, the Transfiguration Cathedral, the bell tower and the Cathedral Church of the Spassky monastery, the bell tower of the Annunciation Cathedral were destroyed. The Church of Saint Barbara, the Church of Saints Justinia and Cyprian were also victims of militant atheists.
In the second half of the XX century archaeological study of the territory of the Kremlin under the leadership of the famous Kazan historian and archaeologist A. H. Khalikov is actively going on. In the 1960s, the Tatar restoration workshop was formed, which managed to stop the fall of the Syuyumbike tower, to restore the Governor's Palace and the Palace Church. On the territory of the Kremlin is a two-storey building of the residence Of the President of the RT in the pseudo-Byzantine style, built in the middle of the XIX century by architect K. Ton and was once the Governor's Palace. In 2005, the construction of the most famous mosque in Russia and Europe, Kul Sharif, was completed.
Back in the 1970s, the Kazan Kremlin was a place where significant city events were held. In those years, the city authorities staged near the Kremlin walls sailing regattas: Soviet athletes competed for first place near the Lenin dam. Today, in the white stone walls of the Kazan citadel are various festivals dedicated to the events that happened on memorable dates. The Museum-reserve is visited by famous artists and musicians. Nowadays it has become a symbol of unity of the Tatar and Russian peoples.
The city was founded by Bulgars-Turkic-speaking tribes living in the Volga region. At first it was a small fortification, later it grew to the size of a city. The high Bank at the confluence of the Kama river into the Volga created excellent conditions for viewing the surrounding area and river navigation. In a short time it became the largest trade center in its region. Soon after its Foundation, Islam became the main religion of the Bulgars.
In its heyday, the town was considered one of the centers of handicraft. It was inhabited by many skilled artisans, jewelers, blacksmiths and tailors.
In the first half of the XIII century, the Bulgarians were attacked by the Golden Horde and almost completely destroyed and looted. What it was before the Mongol invasion is not known for certain. The architecture of the time can be judged solely by the descriptions of foreign merchants and travelers. It is known that most of the buildings were wooden.
Soon the Bulgars was rebuilt. Now the architecture was based on buildings made of stone. Many of them have survived to the present day. After the Mongol conquest, the administrative center of the conquered territories of Volga Bulgaria was established on the site of the newly rebuilt city. At that time, the Cathedral mosque and the Khan's Palace were built. The remains of the cult buildings can be seen today.
In the second half of the XIV century, the Bulgarians were again destroyed by the invasion of Tamerlan, and a century later-the Russian army led by Fyodor Pestry. This was the reason that the Great Bulgar finally fell into decline. Kazan became a new center in the region. Subsequently, the famous city turned into a village.
At the end of the XVIII century on the site of the ancient Bulgarian was founded a small town Spassk, which served as a transshipment point, which stored goods sent to the surrounding villages and places. All official maps referred to the town as Spassk. To somehow distinguish it from other settlements with the same name, it was designated as Spassk-Tatar. During the Soviet era, the city was named Kuibyshev, the name he wore from 1935 to 1957, when the village was flooded due to the filling of the Kuibyshev reservoir.
In 1957, a new town of the same name was founded near the flooded town. As a result of development, it almost completely absorbed the village. The official name in honor of the ancient Bulgarian city received after the collapse of the USSR.
Bulgarians - is the official name, while Tatarstan citizens often call it the Great of the Bulgars or Bulgarians. How to pronounce and spell a title correctly is still a matter of debate. The fact that the historical name - "b'lgar", the sound of "Kommersant" is pronounced as a cross between the Russian "a" and "y".
In the Museum-reserve of Bulgarians there are many interesting places that must be visited. Among the attractions of the city:
White mosque. It is modern, was built in 2012. The best of Islamic architecture was taken in the design of the religious building. The building has an indescribable beauty. The architectural ensemble contains towers of minarets, a prayer room decorated with an arcade of eighty-eight columns. The main dome is an iconic structure includes a fine stained glass Windows. Inside the mosque is no less beautiful. In the main hall there are columns with crescents. Inside the religious building is decorated with Arabic script.
Memorial sign "Acceptance of Islam". It was set up to perpetuate the adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgars. This event occurred in the year 922. The structure is a whole building of considerable size. Inside the structure is the world's largest ever printed Quran. It weighs 0.5 tons. In closed form, its dimensions are two meters by one and a half. The cover of the book is made of malachite fabric. It's beautifully decorated. The cover also features a patterned decor made of silver and covered with a layer of gold. Leather binding of the book. The Quran Museum is located in the basement. It displays many different items telling how religion developed in the region. Noteworthy is the mosaic.
Kul Sharif mosque
The majestic building keeps its doors open for anyone who wishes to go inside and touch the history of Kazan and the Tatar people. The main Tatarstan Juma mosque is also considered one of the largest in Europe. Area attractions-10000 m2.Name history. Imam Kul Sharif
The name was given as a memory of the last Imam of Kazan Kul-Sharif. He really lived in the days of the Kazan khanate, this is evidenced by both historical Chronicles and the memory of the people. For the Tatars he was a great man, he was called "Seyid", which means an honorary title among Muslims for the descendants of the prophet Muhammad. Therefore, the name of the mosque by his name is not surprising.
Description and architecture of the mosque
The building project was designed by architects S. H. Latypov , V. M. Safronov, A. G. by Sattarov, I. F. Saifullina. They managed to emphasize the former greatness of the destroyed mosque. It has 5 floors, including the basement and technical: on the first floor there is a prayer hall for men, the Imam's office, on the second - viewing platforms in the form of balconies for tourists and a prayer area for women. On the ground floor there is a Museum of Islam, wardrobes, rooms for ablution. The mosque complex also includes a library and a publishing house. A small building with a blue roof near the mosque is a fire station building.
The facade of the building is faced with marble, granite, onyx and serpentine. Due to the blue color of the top of the minarets and the dome, the religious landmark is popularly known as the "blue mosque".
The height of each of the minarets and mosque respectively-57 meters.
The prayer hall can be accessed from the North side, the Museum of Islam - from the South.
The capacity of the building is 1.5 thousand people, and the area in front of it can accommodate another 10 thousand worshippers. Green squares on the asphalt marked places for praying.Interior of Kul Sharif mosque
With the skillful hands of masters, the attraction has become not only a symbol of faith, but also a monument to the millennial traditions of the people. Inside you can see arches with verses, ornamental braids.
Architects did not forget about the glorious flower, which means "rebirth" - Tulip. It can be seen in the slits of the Windows. Eight symbols of the Muslim faith-crescents identify eight minarets of the past.
Unique types of works and finishes can be seen in the interior. They were executed in accordance with the technology of the sixteenth century. Alabaster (ganch), wood and stone were used in construction. Everything was processed manually. Also surprising are the gilded elements that enrich the main attraction of the Kazan Kremlin from the inside.
The beauty of the interior is given by stucco, stained glass, mosaic .
Carpets on the floor of the mosque are a gift from the Iranian government, and a colored crystal chandelier weighing about two tons was made in the Czech Republic.Cost and rules of visit
To visit the building, you need to follow some rules:
closed clothing, head, entire body should be covered;
no shoes, everyone takes off their shoes before entering the building, you can wear Shoe covers on your feet;
during prayer not to disturb the worshippers, women can not place on the male half, they pray on the second floor;
it is necessary to show tolerance to others, believers. Do not rush them, do not make noise, do not take pictures of people during prayer;
it is possible to observe praying from one of two viewing platforms for excursion groups and individual tourists.
Visiting the mosque itself is free, and adults pay 50 rubles for the entrance to the Museum of Islamic history, located on the ground floor, students and pensioners-40 rubles, schoolchildren-20 rubles